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World's Largest Calderas


The Biggest of the "supervolcanoes"

What is a caldera?

Caldera nameCountryLocationSize
(km)
Most
recent
eruption*
La Pacana Chile23.10 S
67.25 W
60 x 35Pliocene
Pastos
Grandes
Bolivia21.45 S
67.51 W
50 x 408.3 Ma
Kari KariBolivia19.43 S
65.38 W
30Unknown
Cerro GalanArgentina25.57 S
65.57 W
322.5 Ma
AwasaEthiopia7.18 N
38.48 E
40 x 30Unknown
TobaIndonesia2.60 N
98.80 E
100 x 3574 ka
TondanoIndonesia1.25 N
124.85 E
30 x 20Quaternary
Maroa/
Whakamaru
New
Zealand
38.55 S
176.05 E
40 x 30500 ka
TaupoNew
Zealand
38.78 S
176.12 E
351,800 yr
Yellowstone1USA-WY44.58 N
110.53 W
85 x 45630 ka
La GaritaUSA-CO37.85 N
106.93 W
75 x 3527.8 Ma
EmoryUSA-NM32.8 N
107.7 W
55 x 2533 Ma
BursumUSA-NM33.3 N
108.5 W
40 x 3028-29 Ma
Longridge
(McDermitt)1
USA-OR42.0 N
117.7 W
33~16 Ma
SocorroUSA-NM33.96 N
107.10 W
35 x 2533 Ma
Timber
Mountain
USA-NV37 N
116.5 W
30 x 2511.6 Ma
Chinati
Mountains
USA-TX29.9 N
104.5 W
30 x 2032-33 Ma
Long ValleyUSA-CA37.70 N
118.87 W
32 x 1750 ka
greater Maly
Semiachik/Pirog2
Russia54.11 N
159.65 E
50~50 ka
greater Bolshoi
Semiachik2
Russia54.5 N
160.00 E
48 x 40~50 ka
greater
Ichinsky2
Russia55.7 N
157.75 E
44 x 40~50 ka
greater
Pauzhetka2
Russia51 N
157 E
~40300 ka
greater
Ksudach2
Russia51.8 N
157.54 E
~35~50 ka

* Ma is million years ago, ka is thousand years ago, Pliocene is 5.3-1.8 Ma, Quaternary is 1.8-0 Ma.
1Yellowstone and Longridge are the ends of a chain of several large calderas extending beneath the Snake River Plain, each comparable in size.
2The Russian calderas are informally named here for the smaller modern calderas and active volcanoes that lie within them.

Source: Cambridge Volcanology Group caldera database

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